Iconography
HISTORY
Ancient
CodrusSelf-sacrifice of King Codrus of Athens Codrus killed, with Codrus and soldiers in the background (significance unclear)
RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY
Old Testament
1 Machabees (A.V. Maccabees) Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (1 Mach. 6:46)
Daniel Nabuchodonosor's second dream and madness (Dan. 4) Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree (Dan. 4:6-14)Destruction of the Tree (Dan. 4:10-14)With the watcher commanding to destroy the tree and a man preparing to cut it down, with the sleeping Nabuchodonosor
Life of Christ
Passion CrucifixionThree crossesWithout centurion's conversionChrist's side being pierced, and-or vinegar offered
Typology and Prophecy
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisManuscriptsCologne, Historisches Archiv, Best. 7020 (W (asterisk)) 105 (probably Cologne, second half 14th century)
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → Original composition: Eleazar under the elephant, stabbing it from beneath
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → Original composition: At the top Codrus acclaimed by two soldiers at his sides, at the bottom Codrus slain by two soldiers at his sides, at one side a tower
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24b: King Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree that is cut down by angels → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24b: King Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree that is cut down by angels → Original composition: Tree in centre, going over two registers, in the lower King in bed, angel and man with axe, in the upper animals and birds
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24a: Christ on the Cross → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24a: Christ on the Cross → Variant: Three crosses, with Mary, John and a soldier piercing Christ's side, with texts on banderoles
Types and Prophecies from the Old Testament Daniel Dan. 4:7-14: Nabuchodonosor's dream of a large tree that is cut down, which foretells his temporary madnessType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Types and Prophecies from the Old Testament 1 Machabees 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by itType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with Death of King Codrus of AthensSpeculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with Dan. 4:7-14: Nabuchodonosor's dream of a large tree that is cut down, which foretells his temporary madness (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Non-biblical narratives treated as Types Death of King Codrus of AthensType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Further details
ARTIST/CREATOR
Cologne (attributed)
DATE
2nd half 14th century
LOCATION
Cologne, Historisches Archiv → Best. 7020 (W (with asterisk)) 105, p. 92-93
TEXT/BOOK/DOCUMENT (SOURCE OF PHOTO)
Speculum humanae salvationis
Notes on photograph
DESCRIPTION
Evelyn Silber gift
Contact
For comments or queries, please contact photographic.collect@sas.ac.uk