Iconography
HISTORY
Ancient
CodrusSelf-sacrifice of King Codrus of Athens Codrus killed, with Codrus and soldiers in the background (significance unclear)
RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY
Old Testament
1 Machabees (A.V. Maccabees) Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (1 Mach. 6:46)
Daniel Nabuchodonosor's second dream and madness (Dan. 4) Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree (Dan. 4:6-14)Destruction of the Tree (Dan. 4:10-14)With a man or angel preparing to cut down the tree only, with the sleeping Nabuchodonosor
Life of Christ
Passion CrucifixionThree crossesWithout centurion's conversionChrist's side not being pierced, nor vinegar offered → Virgin not fainting
Typology and Prophecy
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisManuscriptsBerlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preu├čischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. lat. fol. 329 (perhaps Franconia, Mid-14th century, incomplete set)
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → Original composition: Eleazar under the elephant, stabbing it from beneath
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → Original composition: At the top Codrus acclaimed by two soldiers at his sides, at the bottom Codrus slain by two soldiers at his sides, at one side a tower
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24b: King Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree that is cut down by angels → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24b: King Nabuchodonosor dreams of the tree that is cut down by angels → Variant: King in bed, man or angel with axe only, no second angel
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24a: Christ on the Cross → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24a: Christ on the Cross → Variant: Three crosses, with Mary and John only, no texts on banderoles
Types and Prophecies from the Old Testament Daniel Dan. 4:7-14: Nabuchodonosor's dream of a large tree that is cut down, which foretells his temporary madnessType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Types and Prophecies from the Old Testament 1 Machabees 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by itType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with Death of King Codrus of AthensSpeculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with Dan. 4:7-14: Nabuchodonosor's dream of a large tree that is cut down, which foretells his temporary madness (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Non-biblical narratives treated as Types Death of King Codrus of AthensType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Further details
ARTIST/CREATOR
Franconian (attributed)
DATE
mid 14th century
LOCATION
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek → lat. fol. 329, fol. 24v-25r
TEXT/BOOK/DOCUMENT (SOURCE OF PHOTO)
Speculum humanae salvationis
Notes on photograph
DESCRIPTION
Evelyn Silber gift
Contact
For comments or queries, please contact photographic.collect@sas.ac.uk