Iconography
HISTORY
Ancient
CodrusSelf-sacrifice of King Codrus of Athens Codrus killed, with another image of Codrus alone in the background (significance unclear)
RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY
Old Testament
1 Machabees (A.V. Maccabees) Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (1 Mach. 6:46)
Typology and Prophecy
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisManuscriptsK√∂nigsberg, Stadtbibliothek, Cod. S. 18.2 (dispersed) → Chapter 24c-d (Collection Larionov)
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24d: Eleazar stabs the elephant into its belly and is crushed by it → Original composition: Eleazar under the elephant, stabbing it from beneath
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → All images
CyclesManuscripts and Prints Speculum humanae salvationisChapter 24: Crucifixion24c: King Codrus of Athens lets himself be slain disguised as a common soldier to save his city → Variant: Death of Codrus, with Codrus depicted a second time at a distance or behind a wall
Types and Prophecies from the Old Testament 1 Machabees 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by itType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with Death of King Codrus of AthensSpeculum Humanae Salvationis
Antitypes for episodes from the Passion of Christ Crucifixion with 1 Mach. 6:46: Eleazar kills an elephant from beneath and is crushed by it (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Non-biblical narratives treated as Types Death of King Codrus of AthensType for the Crucifixion (SHS)Speculum Humanae Salvationis
Further details
ARTIST/CREATOR
Tyrolese or Swiss Text by a scriptor Caspar
DATE
1426
LOCATION
Moscow, Collection V. N. Larionov (formerly Moscow, Collection I. G. Sanowich)
TEXT/BOOK/DOCUMENT (SOURCE OF PHOTO)
Speculum humanae salvationis
Notes on photograph
BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION
E. Iu. Zolotova, Nemetskaia rukopis 'Zertsalo chelovecheskogo spaseniia' XV veka: Opyt rekonstruktsii (The German manuscript 'Mirror of human salvation' of the XV century: A reconstruction attempt, in Lazarevskie chteniia. Iskusstvo Vizantii, Drevnei Rusi, Zapadnoi Evropy. Materialy nauchnoi konferentsii 2009 (Lazarevsky readings: The art of Byzantium, Ancient Russia, Western Europe. Materials of the scientific conference 2009), Moskva 2009, pp. 346-367, p. 353, fig. 13
Acknowledgements
Illustrations reproduced from Zolotova's book with kind permission of the author, location and date as kindly suggested by Mikhail Rogov, Moscow
Contact
For comments or queries, please contact photographic.collect@sas.ac.uk